Tuesday, November 8, 2016

LET Tips: Properties of Assessment Methods

1. This refers to the instrument’s ability to measure what it purports to measure
A. Validity
B. Practicality
C. Efficiency
D. Reliability

2. Teacher F correlated the results of her developed instrument with a known valid test. With this, she made sure that her instrument has,
A. Content Validity
B. Criterion Validity
C. Construct Validity
D. Face Validity

3. Teacher X wants to check if the instrument she developed is consistent among various test-takers across different time. What property of an assessment method does she have to ensure?
A. Validity
B. Practicality
C. Efficiency
D. Reliability

4. Which of the following scenario violates ethics in assessment?
A. Requiring students to answer checklist of their sexual fantasies
B. Asking pupils sensitive questions without parental consent
C. Testing mental abilities of students using an instrument with unknown validity and reliability
D. All of the above

5. How can teachers apply fairness in assessment?
A. Students should be informed of the learning targets
B. Students should know the assessment method to be used
C. Teachers should avoid stereotyping
D. All of the above

Properties of Assessment Methods

    Assessment methods should possess qualities in order to be efficient in reflecting students’ performance. It is very important for assessment methods to have these qualities since these are means for the teacher to obtain data and information about each student’s extent of learning. If these are not present, then the evaluation and assessment would be questionable. It will also not give clear answers as to whether or not instructional objectives and goals were met
Generally, assessment methods should possess the following:
a. Validity
b. Reliability
c. Fairness
d. Practicality and Efficiency

Validity is perhaps the most important thing to be taken into account in preparing or selecting an instrument to be used in assessment. Of course, as teachers, we would first and foremost want that the data or information we get in using an instrument should serve its purpose.
    For example, a teacher wants to know if his approach in presenting a math lesson effective in improving the mathematics ability of his students. Of course, the teacher would give a test, perhaps making the students solve a series of problems, in order to assess the extent of mathematical ability of his students.   For his test to be valid and to truly reflect the mathematical ability of his students, the test should provide enough samples of the types of word problems covered in his instructional objectives. If the teacher will only give easy problems or only very difficult ones, or only problems involving just one part of the lesson, the test will not provide enough data and information that can lead to valid conclusions.
      Specifically, if the unit is all about “Addition of Fractions” and with a general objective that students should be able to add all kinds of fractions, will a test with only questions or problems involving adding similar fraction considered valid? Of course, No. This is an example of content validity. For the test to have content validity, a teacher should consider that students have enough experience with the task posed by the items. The teacher should also cover necessary material and how this material given a degree of emphasis for the students to answer the items or questions correctly.
      The other aspect of content validation includes format of the instrument. This involves the clarity of printing, size of type, adequacy of work space (if needed), appropriateness of language, clarity of directions, and so on. Regardless of the sufficiency of the questions in a test, if they are given in an inappropriate manner, a teacher still cannot obtain valid results. For example, if a test in English for grade 6 uses words that are for college level, then the test would still not give valid results. Thus, it is also important that the characteristics of the intended sample be kept in mind.
    Aside from content validity, there are also criterion validity and construct validity. Criterion validity refers to the degree to which information provided by a test agrees with information obtained on other, independent test. There is usually a criterion, or a standard for judging, based on another instrument against which scores on an instrument can be checked. Construct validity, on the other hand refers to the degree to which the totality of evidence obtained is consistent with theoretical expectations.

This means that there should be consistency on the scores retrieved from the students using the same instrument or test. This refers to how dependable or stable the instrument is for each individual from one administration of an instrument to another and from one set of items to another.
For example, a teacher gives a test intended to measure comprehension skills. If the test is reliable, we would expect that students who receive a high score the first time they take the test to receive a high score the next time they take the test. The scores would not necessarily be identical, but they should be close.
However, the scores retrieved from a test can be reliable but not always valid. Furthermore, a test that gives unreliable scores cannot provide valid inferences. If scores are entirely inconsistent for a person, they provide no valuable information. There is no way of knowing which score to use to infer an individual’s ability, attitude, or other characteristic.
Generally, the relationship between reliability and validity is as follows:
a. Reliability and validity always depend on the context in which an instrument is used. Depending on the context, an instrument may or may not yield reliable or consistent scores.
b. If the data are unreliable, they cannot lead to valid and legitimate inferences
c. As reliability improves, validity may improve, or it may not.
d. An instrument may have good reliability but low validity,
e. What is desired, of course, is that test should both have high reliability and high validity.

          Fairness in the context of assessment could be described in various ways. For assessment to be fair, teachers should inform students about the goals and objectives of the assessment and what methods of assessment will be used. They also should tell the students how their progress will be evaluated in order for them to organize and manage their resources like time and effort. This is the reason why most of the teachers, at the beginning of the school year, discuss the grading system and how will they assess and evaluate the students in their subject.
          Fairness also involves the idea that assessment is done not to discriminate learners. The purpose is to measure the extent of learning and not to judge the learner.
          Assessment should as well free from biases and prejudices held by the assessor or the teacher. For example, a naughty child shouldn’t be given low grades in Math just for the main reason of his behavior and not his mathematical ability (author: guilty…hehehe). Teachers should also avoid stereotyping like girls are better in language while boys excel more in Mathematics. Also, favoritism should be avoided to avoid halo effect or the tendency for the teacher to give favor and more consideration to the students whom they prefer as compared to other students.

Practicality and Efficiency
          Assessment is practical and efficient if first, the teacher has the competence to administer it. It also should be implementable and does not require too much time or resources. It shouldn’t be too complicated which may cause difficulty in scoring and misinterpretation of the results. This may also cause the assessment to be inefficient since it would require a lot of time for feedback which is actually very important in drawing out significant conclusions.
          For example, a teacher would give a test administered only using only tablets. This may sound practical to affluent schools but if this would be imposed to a school where students belong in low income families, then this method of assessment is considered impractical and inefficient. Again, it is important that the characteristics of the intended sample be kept in mind.

P.S. Wew. I'm not that good with assessment, research, statistics, etc...so a lot of brain juices were used for this post….hehe…I did a lot of contextualizing to make this as comprehensible and as simple as possible. I should mention my references to give credit to the authors and to just let you know that I didn’t just surmise what I have written here…hehehe

De Guzman-Santos, Rosita (2007). Advanced methods in educational assessment and evaluation. Assessment of learning 2. Lorimar Publishing:Quezon City
Fraenkel, Jack R., Wallen, Norman E., Hyun, Helen H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. Eighth edition. Mcgraw-Hill: New York

Friday, September 30, 2016

Seminar-Workshop for Illustrators and Graphic Artists

     One of my greatest childhood dreams is to become an animator/manga artist or a children’s book illustrator. Aside from teaching, my passion and shall I say, my “God-given” talent is drawing. I have been drawing since when I was two or three I think. My father was an upholsterer, and he used to lay leatherette on our floor. The other side of the leatherette was actually my first canvas where my father taught me to draw elephants and other animals. Animals then turned into human characters like angels and saints (not kidding, I love to draw cherubs and archangels, Mama Mary, St. Antonio and many more…hehe...talking about how religious I am, or was?..hehe). At about 11, I became an otaku and turned my drawing style to anime. When I was in high school, I was a regular contestant in poster making contests (and bragging aside, I usually end up in top three places). In college, drawing helped me a financially since I usually was asked to draw SIMS for my classmates whenever we had demo teaching. 
    All my techniques are self-taught. I remembered going to National Bookstore just to read “how to draw” books. I didn’t watch TV that much back in high school and all I did was to be in my room drawing and drawing until I get contented with my work.

    Now talking about my present job as a teacher, it became obvious among my colleagues that I was quite good in drawing. My bulletin boards which I posted last time caught a lot of attention whenever my colleagues come in my room, and because of this I started to become a judge or a coach in poster making contests.

    My break in drawing actually started when my former teacher and now a colleague asked to illustrate a big story book for her. It was a story of a fairy and a cat. I said yes since it was Christmas vacation and I had nothing to do and of course, a fulfillment of being a children’s book illustrator. To make the story short, our LRMDS (Learning Resources Management and Development System) supervisor got impressed with our work that the big book with my illustration got approved for display and reproduction in our division. It was also followed by another two story books all of which also got approved.

My first big book illustration...I forgot the title sorry..heheh

My second drawing..Ang Damgo ni Miyo (Miyo's Dream)
    Last September, I was honored that I got chosen to be one of the representatives to attend a regional seminar-workshop for illustrators and graphic artists in our region. The seminar was held in Magic Island, Guimaras which was the same resort where we had our faculty summer outing last 2015. There was a typhoon at that time and we actually had second-thoughts if the said training will push through. Thank God we got to our venue safe and sound despite of the bad weather. The seminar was attended by more than a hundred participants from Panay and Negros Island Region.

    The seminar-workshop was my favorite seminar so far. It wasn’t cerebral but more of a development and a showcase of our drawing skills. We were taught how to illustrate based on the guidelines given by the Department of Education in making textbooks and learning materials. We were also trained how to use computer application like Photoshop to efficiently and aesthetically improve our drawings.

The drawing I made during seminar,,,"Lupad Pinalangga" (Fly, My Beloved)
     I got a specific style when I drew my illustration and I decided to stick with it in every book that I do so as to have my own identity as an artist. And I am happy that my fellow illustrators appreciate my work. They called it “doodling” but I thought I was doing zentangles. One illustrator commented that my work has similarities to those with “award-winning” children’s story book illustrations in the country. All I do was to smile and got embarrassed because I don’t think I am that good. If my drawing will be placed side to side with the work of other artist, my drawings are amateurish though it has specific style. Perhaps this made my illustrations unique from others.

   What I love the most about the seminar is the conglomeration of such talented people. I am not saying that I am “talented” but I felt “belonged”. It is so nice to be surrounded with people with the same talents as you have and whom you share a common passion. And the best part of this is the fact that each artist respects each other. Each artist has their own style and to necessarily compare each is futile. Hopefully, there still will be another seminar similar to this and I will still be chosen to attend…hehe…

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Knowledge Channel Learning Effectively through Enhanced Pedagogy

    Last June 22-24, 2016, I attended Knowledge Channel's LEEP (Learning Effectively through Enhanced Pedagogy) Seminar together with my principal and a coteacher. The aim of the seminar is to update and perhaps refresh teachers with enhanced pedagogy for the improvement of teaching-learning process. And at the same time, it intends to improve the 21st Century skills of the teachers through the use of technology and multimedia such as the Knowledge Channel.

The 80s Group with Mr. Seo, (sitted at the left), our facilitator...hello Naruto shirt...hehehe
    Our facilitators were Maam Fe Hidalgo, Sir Seo, Sir Edric and the two others (sorry I forgot their names...). They were actually good with their topics. I love how the facilitators, particularly Sir Seo utilized activity-based approach in presenting important concepts of the seminar. Though some are quite boring because of the lecture approach of the other facilitators, I still learned a lot.
   We were grouped according to our MI (multiple intelligences) and later based on the decade when we were born. I was quite lucky that I was in a group who are talented so accomplishing the tasks was a no-brainer for us. It was actually fun.

While doing our assigned task....
   Anyway, I was very appreciative and grateful to Knowledge Channel for providing us with a lot of e-learning packages which we could actually use in our school. I was very ecstatic knowing that my favorite show on Knowledge Channel, Faculty Room, was included in the package. At least, I have the complete episodes in which I could watch all over again and perhaps be used with my college education students. And I was quite happy that other teachers seem to enjoy the show as well. But most of all, I was very happy knowing that these packages can be used in teaching our students in our school in order to improve academic success. And I think through this, there is no excuse for not giving quality education to our students.
  The later part, I was quite pissed knowing that I have a part in the closing program. To be honest, when I attend seminars or teacher-related activities, I tend to maintain a low-profile. It is not that I am passive, I just don't want to be the center of attention and be the "star of the show". I just want to learn and that's it. However, as soon as the closing program started and they were distributing the programmes, I was in shock to find my name listed to "accept the challenge" of the seminar! It is not that I can't do it. It is just that if I were informed earlier, I could have prepared and have my mind set. So while the program was going on, I rushed to scribble some notes on the things I need to say, Actually, what made me pissed is the fact that I was caught unprepared. It is as if  someone wanted to sabotage me and to test if I could still deliver despite the pressure, OR, someone might have been assigned to that part and in order to save her/himself, she/he pointed the finger at me. To end my "lamentation", I was thankful that I delivered. I was a bit proud of myself for pulling that off despite of it being spontaneous and unexpected.

Isn't it obvious? I am quite not happy...hehehe
    To sum up my experience, I can say that I was totally filled with knowledge, skills and attitudes of a 21st century teacher out from the seminar. The place, the food, the conduct of the seminar was overall excpetional. And wait, I was also very happy with the chocolates they gave to those who are good performers and participants...hehehe...Thank you Knowledge Channel!

Friday, April 29, 2016

Teacher's Prayer

    I just want to share this inspiring prayer for teachers. There are a lot of prayers in the web but I originally read this prayer at the back of my lesson plan. Let me just share this to you. I made a poster of it so that you can post it in your classroom or table.

Teacher's Prayer

I want to teach my students how
To live this life on Earth.
To face it's struggles and it's strife
And to improve their worth.
Not just the lesson in a book
Or how the rivers flow, But how to choose the proper path
Wherever they may go.
To understand eternal truth
And know the right from wrong,
And gather all the beauty of
A flower and a song.
For if I help the world to grow
In wisdom and in grace,
Then I shall feel that I have won
And I have filled my place.
And so I ask your guidance, God,
That I may do my part.
For character and confidence
And happiness of heart.
-James J. Metcalf